Sunday, March 8, 2009
Tuesday, March 3, 2009
- A teacher brings out what is already there in the student—the Latin etymology of 'educate' is horticultural—rather than pouring in. The teacher provides environment & stimuli; the student the rest.
- Answer questions with questions--the student learns by doing and thinking-through, rather than simply adding a set answer as one more log on the mental pile. "Give them a fish and they eat for a day; teach them to fish and they eat for a lifetime."
Although the words don't have the same root according to the OED, 'sacred' certainly sounds like 'secret', and they come from words which have very similar meanings. 'Sacred' comes from L. 'sacer' and means to set apart. 'Secret', as you know, comes from L. 'secernere', which means to separate, or to divide off. Perhaps the Latin words 'sacer' and 'secernere' are cognates, and the OED simply does not trace the words far enough back (it is Latin after all, and not English).
Also, the word 'share' can mean to divide, according to the OED. Consider a ploughshare, which cuts the soil. Thus, both words in the title can mean to divide. This title is doubly about division! In this sense, it could be that the secret sharer is the one who destroys the secret, rather than distributes or keeps it. It's a title that opposes and divides itself in a number of ways. It was fun looking into these things.
Monday, March 2, 2009
Thursday, February 19, 2009
1.] In Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, Humpty Dumpty has the following exchange with Alice:
- "When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty said in a rather a scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less."
- "The question is," said Alice, "whether you can make words mean different things."
- "The question is," said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master – that's all."
Using a word to mean whatever the speaker chooses it to mean is a definition of nonsense. Consider Tennyson's "The Higher Pantheism" and Swinburne's "Response" as a dialectical exchange, where the subject is nonsense. Continue that dialectic with your essay, using literary analysis to show which one of the two previous stages -- Tennyson's or Swinburne's--is Humpty Dumpty nonsense, and which one is sense.
2.] Robert Browing's Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came is arguably the most evocative poem of the Victorian Age. In lecture, for instance, we saw how it can work as a dolourous representation of the state of a Christian's faith after Darwin. Concentrating on the transformative effect that the final stanza has on the work as a whole, interpret the poem as an allegory of some specific dark state of mind or social condition. Keep in mind that as an allegory, each aspect of the work -- word, phrase, line, object, place -- must have some direct and precise analogue to that which is being allegorised.
3.] Rudyard Kipling's "Gunga Din" and "Without Benefit of Clergy" give literary representation of Indians during the British Raj. Concentrating on the texts themselves, explain what Kipling might intend by these representations in relation to the Empire. Use Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "The Burden of Ninevah" to inform your configuration of Victorian England's understanding of Empire.
Friday, February 13, 2009
For 5 marks, explain how there might be a connection in Victorian literature between nonsense and the cult of the child.
Thursday, February 12, 2009
An idea of his current cultural footprint can be gotten from the usually-sensible (and always indispensable) Arts & Letters Daily, which, for the Darwin anniversary, has turned effectively hagiographical. Search for "Darwin" on their main page for a sense of this.
Tuesday, February 10, 2009
I absolutely despise poetry. In my humble opinion, the poetry we are doing is being over-analyzed. Im sure there are others who agree with me when I say that, maybe the poet did not have anything more to say. For example, in "Cement Worker....", yield", as you said is a yellow sign and emphasizes the almost synesthesia-like description of colour throughout this book. However, I think that you were possibly the only person in the entire lecture hall who thought of it that way. Of course, your thought is what counts being our professor, but I think that maybe, its just a simple poem, without five hundrer million deeper meanings. Or maybe its just my hate for poetry that is coming to the surface.To the charge of over-analysis, I replied, à la one of Archie Bunker's malapropisms, "Now listen here, I resemble that remark." Heck, I get paid to over-analyse!
Seriously, though, the Close Reading assignment is designed to have you exercise and strengthen your interpretive abilities. One of William Blake's Proverbs of Hell is very pertinent here:
You never know what is enough unless you know what is more than enough.To rephrase that for us, you will never know what is a full interpretation until you know what is an over-interpretation. Here in English Literature courses, we learn how to push interpretations to their limits--learn to see how wide and deep a single word, or a phrase, can go--and then, once we see all the possibilities (of meaning, of reference, and of association), we can then learn how to winnow out the the likely from the unlikely; plausible from the implausible; the valid from the unvalid; the certain from the uncertain.
This post is credited to one of my seminar students who was concerned that her analysis of the word "brick" in a course reading was over-interpretation. Looking at her work, it was just the right amount of intrepretation: she would have had a long way to go still before it reached the line of over-interpretation.
So, for Wednesday lecture this week, consider all the possible meanings, references, and associations of the word "brick"....
Sunday, February 8, 2009
"....most people doing interpretive work in literature proceed from precisely the wrong point of inception. It seems to me that when doing an analysis of a text...[many people] begin from a point of total clarity. This is not surprising, as it a position of security and cohesion, but it all to often means that....[many people do] a lot of work to offer an interpretation that is apparent to most other readers.... [Instead, they should rather be] approaching the point in the text....[found] most difficult, and...linger there until it speaks....in a way that coheres with the other aspects they are already confident in their understanding of. In doing this....[they are] far more likely to produce a piece of analysis that is fresh, insightful and not readily apparent to the average reader. Of course, this is a far more difficult thing....but then that is really the point, isn't it?"
I think that this movie might be of interest both to you and to students in the class (ENGL 206). Ben Stein, in his "Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed," critically examines the theory of evolution, its history, its basic tennets, and its role in our society. He also seeks to establish creationism as a legitimate science or route of discovery. I think everyone would find this movie engaging, whether their interest is in science, spirituality, society, or listening to Ben Stein's monotone
Wednesday, February 4, 2009
Monday, February 2, 2009
Tuesday, January 27, 2009
Into the Valley of Death
Anger at vote-rigging has worked to rip a thin scab off many years of frustration at poverty, corruption and inequitable land ownership
From Saturday's Globe and Mail
January 26, 2008 at 12:28 AM EST
KIPKELION, KENYA — With the sun barely over the edge of the valley, the colours on the hills were muffled. The banana leaves were dull green, the sugar cane stalks pale yellow. And so the flames, when we saw them flare in first one house, then a second, then streets and streets on fire, were shocking, vivid orange, more alive than anything around.
On this day in 1845 Robert Browning wrote his first letter to Elizabeth Barrett, so inciting one of the most legendary of literary love stories. The letter belongs to the 'fan mail' category -- the praise of a thirty-two-year-old up-and-comer for one just six years older and already internationally famous -- but it was more than just poet-to-poet. After commending "the fresh strange music, the affluent language, the exquisite pathos and true new brave thought," Browning confides that he is addressing "your own self," and that "for the first time, my feeling rises altogether."
Monday, January 26, 2009
One of the panelists is English grad student and oftimes TA Myka Tucker-Abramson. The topic is a very vital one that will have great effect on you ta SFU: your class schedules, for one thing.
Click on the hotlink above, or this post's title, for the information flyer.
Friday, January 23, 2009
"We still live in a society that was in large part made by the Victorians. We may affect to despise them, ridicule them, even condemn them. We certainly misunderstand them. Part of this misunderstanding is that we mistake their confidence for arrogance; for we misunderstand the paradoxical nature of that confidence....
We imagine the Victorians as stuffy and orthodox; yet they were the most questioning, most radical and most open-minded generation in our history. Perhaps it is our own arrogance....that prevents our seeing this."
Sunday, January 18, 2009
For an account of the Charge, click here.
You can actually hear Tennyson himself reading the poem here (it is somewhat unstettling, actually, hearing a voice down through the ages) from a wax-recording arranged by another historic great; Thomas Edison.
In fact, speaking of great, here is the voice of one of the truly great: the angel of the Crimean War, the "Lady of the Lamp," Florence Nightingale.
Friday, January 16, 2009
These are, in my opinion, the origin of comics, an argument, indeed, I make in my recent lecture series on graphic novels. This, of course, is what a Englishman would say against the Americans' claim for genesis.
Sweeney Todd's name is seen in Victorian 'penny dreadful' newspapers and then 19th century melodrama, complete with his own catchphrase, "See how I polish 'em off!" .... This undercurrent of malevolence was compounded by the young Todd's bizarre interest in the instruments of torture displayed at the nearby Tower of London. To escape his parents' brawling, he lingered in the Tower's museum, where thumbscrews, racks and other macabre tools were displayed to discourage citizens from dissent.
Wednesday, January 14, 2009
- Q. Was it said that A Christmas Carol was a response to Origin of Species?
- A. Strictly speaking, no; indirectly, yes. Both of the Charles D.'s authoring our opening two course readings were reacting to Whig ideology. Upper-middle-class Darwin was a Whig (a Whig of Whigs, in fact, born from the unity of two high-capitalist families); and lower-middle-class Dickens was anti-Whig. A Christmas Carol, like many of Dickens' novels, was directed against the Whig ideas that Origin of Species encodes as scientific law. So in this sense the texts form an excellent dialectic of the dominant Whig ideology of the early and mid- Victorians.
- Q. How does the triangle relate to A Christmas Carol?
- A. The triangle is one small example of one of the resonances that Dickens captures with his use of particularly three Spirits. The resonance here is the Classical: the number three was a central number for Plato, for instance, and, among the examples from Plato given in lecture, the triangle--with its a geometric axiomata-- was one of them. Rationalist triangles can be seen recurring in many guises through Western history: Marxism's thesis, antithesis, synthesis being just one (Freud's Id, Ego, SuperEgo was alos given in lecture.)
Monday, January 5, 2009
Steampunk superheroes: who knew?
Dreaming of a white Christmas? Put it down to Dickens’s nostalgia for his lost childhood.
Paul Simons and Will Pavia
Small flurries of Christmas cards are falling on doormats across the land today, bearing pictures that combine idyllic village scenes with the snow conditions of northern Greenland. The Met Office, which tends to be less romantic in its outlook, provided an entirely different forecast for Christmas Day in Britain yesterday: it will be cloudy, mostly dry and rather mild.
Some will blame climate change for the discrepancy, and imagine snow-bound Christmas Days from distant childhood — yet the truly snowy Christmas of Christmas cards has occurred only seven times since 1900. Before then, sparse records suggest that less than a score of 19th-century Christmases were white.
It now appears that the true culprit was Charles Dickens, whose childhood coincided with a decade of freakishly cold weather. The novelist persistently described a Britain smothered in snow on Christmas Day.
Sunday, January 4, 2009
- E-mail (indeed, all communication) between Lecturer and student, and TA and student, is a formal and professional exchange. Accordingly, proper salutation and closing is essential.
- Business e-mail is courteous but, of professional necessity, concise and direct. It rejects roundabout or ornate language, informal diction, and any appearance of what is termed in the vernacular, 'chat.'
- Customary response time for student e-mail to the Course Lecturer or TAs is two to three office days. E-mail on weekends will ordinarily be read the Monday following.
- Use only your SFU account for e-mail to the course Lecturer. All other e-mail is blocked by whitelist.
Missed classes and deadlines are not to be reported by e-mail: if a medical or bereavement exception is being claimed, the supporting documentation is handed in, along with the completed assignment, either in person or to the Instructor's mailbox outside the Department Office.
This schedule lists readings, not lecture schedule. Although lecture follows the order of readings here, it keeps to its own pace...lecture covers material read the week before.
This schedule is to allow you to structure your reading of the course material. Following this reading schedule will ensure that you are always one week ahead of lecture.
[Page numbers are from the Longman Anthology.]
SCHEDULE OF READINGS
Course Week One
On the Origin of Species .... 1357
A Christmas Carol 1464 (w.1520)
Course Week Two
Fanny Kemble 1140
Parliamentary Papers 1143
Henry Mayhew 1158
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
The Kiss 1718
The Burden of Ninevah 1719
Goblin Market 1731
Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came 1427
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
The Charge of the Light Brigade 1291
The Higher Pantheism + Response 1327-8
The Lady of Shalott 1235
Course Week Three
Without Benefit of Clergy 1860
Gunga Din 1882
Course Week Four
Algernon Charles Swinburne
The Leper 1767
Gerard Manley Hopkins
The Windhover, Pied Beauty 1794
Moral Verses 1826-1848
Course Week Five
from The Descent of Man (1365-1368 only)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
To George Sand x2 1198
Aurora Leigh 1203
Course Weeks Six to Seven
Jekyll and Hyde/The Secret Sharer/ Transformation: Three Tales of Doubles
Course Week Eight
Dover Beach 1662
Culture & Anarchy: from Sweetness & Light 1695
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
A Scandal in Bohemia 1556
Course Week Nine
John Henry, Cardinal Newman
from Apologia Pro Vita Sua 1390
Thomas Henry Huxley
from Evolution & Ethics 1398
Our Society at Cranford 1522
Course Week Ten
The Withered Arm 1538
Course Week Eleven
from The Stones of Venice 1580-1590
Victorian Ladies & Gentlemen 1626
Sarah Ellis 1632
John Henry, Cardinal Newman 1638
Queen Victoria 1651
Course Week Twelve
The Importance of Being Earnest 2003
Enoch Soames 2091
Course Week Thirteen
Review and Recapitulation
[Lecture slides will be made available online 48 hours before the Final Exam]
The last five minutes of each Wednesday's lecture (& the five minutes following) will be used for an open Q&A with the Instructor. Any questions relating to the course, or debate on any of the ideas, are welcome. If you have no questions on the day, you are quite free to leave....
Schedule of Assignment Due Dates:
[Details of the separate assignments listed in "Pertinent & Impertinent" links.
Nb: There is a five percent per day late penalty for all assignments, documented medical or bereavement leave excepted. For medical exemptions, provide a letter (not a note) on a Physician's or Surgeon's letterhead which declares his or her medical judgement that illness or injury prevented work on the assignment. The letter must cover the entire period over which the assignment was scheduled and may be verified by telephone. For bereavement leave, simply provide, ex post facto, a copy of the order of service or other published notice of remembrance.
January 26th or 28th: Group Project Proposal due in seminar.
February 18th: Close-Reading Project: due in lecture.
February 19th: Mid-Term Essay topics posted.
March 4th: Mid-Term Essay due in lecture.
March 30th or April 1st: Group Project due in-seminar.
April 15th 8:30-11:30: Final Exam.
Grading Bonus: Lecture Attendance & Punctuality
Attendance and punctuality are both virtues that the professional world expects. Lateness and unpunctuality are penalised in the professional sphere and censured in the private. To help promote these real-world virtues, a grading bonus is available to the class. If high attendance (measured by unpredictable attendance checks) and negligible unpunctuality (based on the Lecturer's observation) is maintained in lecture throughout the Term, the grades on the Mid-Term essays will be retroactively raised to the next grade level at the end of Term. (I.e. C+ becomes B-, and so on.)
Research material is available on Library Reserve.
Nb: “Participation requires both attendance and punctuality ."
Office Hours: AQ 6094 -- Monday and Wednesday ten thirty to noon, Tuesday noon to three o'clock. Bring your coffee and discuss course matters freely. E-mail to email@example.com, Phone 778-782-5820
Surveying, analysing, understanding and enjoying the vast empire of literature in the nineteenth century, concentrating on the material written under the majestic matriarch, Victoria Regina. Attendance and engagement in lecture, discussion and exchange in seminar, careful and close reading of course material, and group study and presentation of contemporary Victorian cool are the requirements of the course.
Dodge through Victorian London, avoiding the gangs and villains and trials and tribulations of Dickensian London in order to seek out Charles Dickens in his chalet hideaway in Rochester. You'll face tasks and choices - you might have to pick pockets for Fagin, or rob bodies for Gaffer Hexham. Perform well and you'll be able to wend your way through dark alleyways and winding streets. Make the wrong choice and you could end up in jail, or worse... You'll need to keep your health up and you'll need to keep your eyes open in order to make money for your fare to Rochester. Be warned; time is short and the streets of London are not for the faint hearted...
This long period of six weeks for the assignment allows for successive drafts to be worded and edited in seminar; both with peers and with the tutorial leader.
"Close Reading" in our context means reading the text carefully, paying attention first and carefully (i.e. closely) to the words and phrases: their diction, etymology, associations, order, meter, rhyme, metaphors, and the like. Close reading a text is to concentrate start on the particular before making remark on the general; letting, as far as possible, the text speak to you before you speak to the text.
When you have made been through the text and made notes and comments about this level of specific detail, you then write these discoveries up into essay form, where you then consider any conclusions that appear to you about the author and his or her intentions and significance; historical, intellectual or æsthetic.
Consider the famous line, l.15, from Tennyson's "The Lady of Shalott,"
"Four gray walls, and four gray towers"What does the first "four" give us? With "walls" we have a image of imprisonment. The four right angles implied invokes rationalism: closed rather than open, and thus associated with controlling masculinity (cf. Gaskell's Cranford.) This masculine element of the enclosure is strengthened by the phallic "four....towers": alluding perhaps to four levels of men (incl. lover) The "four" additionally suggests enclosure for the four points of the compass. It is also a sharply non-religious number: odd additional from the sacred number three. It is also the number of iambs in the line. The second word, "gray," denotes colourlessness, which is a direct contrast with the vivid colour-words in the stanzas immediately surrounding (e.g. "blue," "yellow," "red.") Gray also has a moral connotation of being neither openly good (white) nor openly bad (black.) "Gray" is the colour of ambiguity, which sets up the quality of the Lady's ambiguous action in leaving the tower.
That certainly is the beginning of a close reading of this one line (e.g. further work on the structure of the line's parallel clauses has intriguing relevancy.) It is just to illustrate the level of detail that a close reading has. And of course your own close reading will likely differ from this: a student once pointed out that l.485 of bk.2 of Aurora Leigh--'life develops from within'--adds a maternal dimension to the passage: a reading which, you won't be surprised to hear, had hitherto evaded me.
Some suggestions for effective proposals are online at this link.
The project creatively engages present-day Victorianism; either Victorian Cool, or Canadian Victoriana.
Victorian Cool includes
- Steampunk (e.g. the Steamboy anime, books like Gibson & Sterling's The Difference Engine, pop-culture artifacts like Victorian action figurines, etc.);
- Gaslight graphic novels (e.g. Batman: Gotham by Gaslight, League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, etc.)
- Neo-Victorian movies (e.g. From Hell (i.e. on Jack the Ripper); Sweeney Todd; various Sherlock Holmes adaptations; etc.)
Canadian Victoriana presents aspects of the fact that Canada is a Victorian country.
- Our province (British Columbia) and its original capital city (New Westminster) were named by & in honour of Queen Victoria, and our current capital is named after & in honour of her.
- Our neighbouring province is named by her & in honour of her husband.
- Our nation's Confederation -- in 1867 -- was a Victorian event: in her parliament & with her involvement.
- Queen Victoria's father lived & administered the military in Canada for over a decade; the Duke of Kent lived for nearly thirty years with a French-Canadian mistress (Adelaide Dubus, with whom, in all likelihood, he had illegitimate offspring) until his 1818 marriage to another woman, who became Victoria's mother.
The project can take the form of a blog; a video-taped theatrical presentation, documentary, a short film, etc.; a written collection; or any creative form of presentation.
The objective is to give evidence of a creative engagement with and understanding of the Victorian character; as a means of better comprehending the period and cultural character of the Age under our present literary study.
On the last seminar week of term -- March 30th or April 1st -- hand in along with the project any hard copy material -- scripts, blog URLs -- that you wish to have included in the grading.
The relationship between the letter grades and the percentages is as follows:
"Learn how to listen and you will prosper even from those who talk badly.” Plutarch (AD 46-120) Greek Biographer & Philosopher.
The Student Learning Commons at the W.A.C. Bennett Library has an exceptionally helpful on-line guide to effective note-taking at university lecture. (It is a trifle disconcerting reading for the Lecturers themselves, because it implies--indeed, all-but declares--that many of us are dull, confused, inarticulate, habituated and otherwise deficient in our craft.)
The guide is available online in .pdf format at this hotlink.
The Student Learning Commons additionally has an entire page of links to on-line resources to imprioove the student's "Listening & Note-Taking" at this hotlink.
Note-taking in lecture is one of the skills that one learns at university with broad applicability in life. Arguably, learning how to take written notes from oral delivery is one of the most practically valuable benefits of a university education.
These resources linked here are very valuable: especially as it is increasingly common for undergraduates to confuse note-taking with copying down PowerPoint slides. It is rule worth learning that PowerPoint is not the Lecture: lectures are what happen when you are distracted by copying down PowerPoint slides....
Saturday, January 3, 2009
So, for your assignment proposals, you would list (in either essay or point form) the full set of criteria by which your project can be gauged to have failed. for example "Our project will have failed if:"
- the project does not advance an academic thesis.
- the project does not have [some measurable degree of] quality
- the project does not identifiably incorporate material from relevent scholarship
- the project fails to relate directly to some number of the primary course texts
- the project fails to represent and demonstrate advanced understanding of the central ideas of the course
- &c, &c.
Additionally, proposals are accompanied by a concise justification of the academic validity of the project being proposed.
An effective proposal describes (nb. look up the etymology of this word in the OED) three components of a project:
Two pages is a reasonable length for a proposal of this type, four pages at most.
Friday, January 2, 2009
19TH-CENTURY LITERATURES IN ENGLISH
Instructor: S. OGDEN
Steampunk & Beyond
Despite or, perhaps, because of the serene regnancy of its titular monarch, the Victorian age was a riot of conflict religious, political, intellectual, social, industrial, familial and, of course, artistic. Our course will experience the contradictions, energies and titanic attainment - for good and ill - of Britain under Queen Victoria through an apposite selection from its enduring literature. The concept of ‘literature’ itself is a case of the range, variety and contradictions of the Age. In our, Second Elizabethan, Age, fiction, poetry and essay are read by almost mutually exclusive populations of reader. The Victorians, quite the contrary, enjoyed all types of literature promiscuously for aesthetic delight, for improvement and for education. Their exemplary names - Darwin, Dickens, Martineau, Marx - have power scarcely diminished, and to a surprising degree the concerns of literary Victorians are the vivid concerns of our own day. For our course, we will read selections from the commendable Longman anthology and one ‘Victorian Novel’ entire and, among other benefits, will be able to better understand the implications of the deep imprints of Victorian England in the nation of Canada today.
Damrosch, et al. eds. Longman Anthology of British Literature, Vol. 2B, The Victorian Age
Stevenson, R. L. . Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
10% Attendance and Productive Participation
20% Group project
10% Close reading project (1000 words)
25% Mid-Term essay (2500 words)
35% Final examination